Reusable Widgets that work! — Vue Amsterdam Conference 2022 Summary series — Fifth Talk

Reusable Widgets that work! — Vue Amsterdam Conference 2022 Summary series — Fifth Talk

How to build accessible reusable widgets and reusable components with the help of ARIA (Accessible Rich Internet Application)

Welcome! Happy to see you in the fifth part of my Vuejs Amsterdam Conference 2022 summary series, in which I share a summary of all the talks with you.

You can read my JSWorld Conference 2022 Summary series (in four parts) here, where I summarized all the first day's talks. You can also find the previous Talks of the Vue Amsterdam conference 2022 in my blog.

(Recurring) Introduction

After two and a half years, JSWorld and Vue Amsterdam Conference were back in Theater Amsterdam between 1 and 3 June, and I had the chance to attend this conference for the first time. I learned many things, met many wonderful people, spoke with great developers, and had a great time. On the first day the JSWorld Conference was held, and on the second and third days, the Vue Amsterdam.

The conference was full of information with great speakers, each of whom taught me something valuable. They all wanted to share their knowledge and information with other developers. So I thought it would be great if I could continue to share it and help others use it.

At first, I tried to share a few notes or slides, but I felt it was not good enough, at least not as good as what the speaker shared with me. So I decided to re-watch each speech, dive deeper into them, search, take notes and combine them with their slides and even their exact words in their speech and then share it with you so that what I share with you is at least at the same level as what I learned from them.

A very important point

Everything you read during these few articles is the result of the effort and time of the speaker itself, and I have only tried to learn them so that I can turn them into these articles. Even many of the sentences written in these articles are exactly what they said or what they wrote in Slides. This means if you learn something new, it is because of their efforts. (So if you see some misinformation blame them, not me, right? xD)

Last but not least, I may not dig into every technical detail or live codings in some of the speeches. But if you are interested and need more information, let me know and I’ll try to write a more detailed article separately. Also, don’t forget to check out their Twitter/Linkedin.

Here you can find the program of the conference:

JSWORLD Conference

Reusable Widgets that work!

Maria Lamardo - Head of Accessibility Training and Sr Manager of Accessibility Engineering at CVS Health

Vue.js is an amazing framework that allows you to quickly build reusable components. We can leverage this to build accessible reusable widgets with the help of ARIA (Accessible Rich Internet Application). Using ARIA roles and attributes, we can improve the accessibility of certain elements by providing additional semantics. In this talk, we will go over how to follow the specifications and build accessible and reusable tabs, accordions, toggle buttons, and modal dialogs that work for everyone!


All the things that you need to know about ARIA are well documented in W3C and it is recommended to read, but here is an abstracted version of it.

Modals Design Considerations

  • It must have a button that closes the dialog.
  • The content outside of the dialog should be obscured with visual styling like a grey background.
  • Make sure you prevent users from interacting with content outside of the dialog.

Modals Opening Focus Interaction

When a dialog opens, focus can be set on either the first focusable element, or a static element at the top of the dialog to make content easier to read and ensure that all the content remains in view, or the most frequently used element if interactions are limited to providing information or continue processing.

You don’t wanna set focus to something that is going to be destructive for the user, for example, let’s imagine you have an interaction where you open a modal to delete your account. You don’t want to set the first focus on “Yes, delete my account”.

Modals Closing Focus Interaction

When a dialog closes, the focus is set on the element that invoked the dialog, or when it doesn’t make sense you can set the focus on a different element, like an element that provides logical workflow if invoking element no longer exists, or on the next element if there is a subsequent step in the workflow following dialog task completion, especially if immediately reopening dialog is very unlikely.

Modals Keyboard Interaction

TabMoves focus to next tabbable element in modalLooping around to first element
Shift + TabMoves focus to previous tabbable element in modalLooping around to last element
EscapeCloses the dialog

Modals Technical Considerations

Dialog container should have:

All elements required to operate the dialog should be descendants of the element that has a dialog role.

    <h2 id="title">Title of the dialog</h2>

    <p id="description">Information provided by the dialog.</p>

    <button aria-label="close">×</button>

On the mac, you can Activate Voice Over which is the default mac screen reader by clicking Command + F5, and then you can go through your page and test it.

Also in chrome Dev-Tools, there is an accessibility tab that has some cool accessibility information.

With that, you can open this example and check it out, and here is the code.

Toggle Buttons

If you want the full information you can find it on the W3C website.


A button is a widget that enables users to trigger an action or event, such as submitting a form, opening a dialog, canceling an action, or performing a delete operation.

In addition to the ordinary button widget, WAI-ARIA supports 2 other types of buttons:

  • Toggle buttons
  • Menu buttons

Toggle Buttons Design Considerations

A two-state button that can be either off (not pressed) or on (pressed).

To tell assistive technologies that a button is a toggle button, specify a value for the attribute aria-pressed.

The label on a toggle mustn't change when its state changes; if the label changes in the design, there is no need for the aria-pressed attribute.

Toggle Buttons Focus Handling

  • If activating the button does not dismiss the current context, then focus remains on the button after activation.
  • If activating the button opens or closes a dialog, then follow the dialog pattern.
  • If the button action indicates a context change, you can move focus to the starting point for that action
  • If the button is activated with a shortcut key, then focus usually remains in the context from which the shortcut key was activated

Toggle Buttons Keyboard Interaction

EnterActivates the button
SpaceActivates the button

Toggle Buttons Technical Considerations

  • The Toggle button must have the role of button.
  • Make sure that the button has an accessible name.
  • You can set aria-describedby to any description.
  • You can add aria-disabled set to true if action is unavailable.
  • The toggle button has an aria-pressed state.
<button aria-pressed="false">

Here is a good example that you can check out and here is the code.


Here is the complete documentation. Let’s take a look at its main points.

Accordions Design Considerations

Vertically stacked set of interactive headings that each contain a title, content snippet, or thumbnail representing a section of content

Accordion Header:

Label for or thumbnail representing a section of content that also serves as a control for showing, and in some implementations, hiding the section of content.

Accordion Panel:

Section of content associated with an accordion header.

Accordions Keyboard Interaction

Enter or SpaceExpands associated collapsed panel, optionally collapses other opened panelCollapses associated expanded panel; if the implementation allows.
TabMoves focus to the next focusable element
Shift + TabMoves focus to the previous focusable element
Down Arrow (Optional)Moves focus from the accordion header to the next accordion header Optionally loops back to the first accordion header.
Up Arrow (Optional)Moves focus from accordion header to the previous accordion header Optionally loops back to last accordion header
Home (Optional)Moves focus from an accordion header to the first accordion header
End (Optional)Moves focus from an accordion header to the last accordion header

Accordions Technical Considerations

Make sure that Each accordion header button has:

  • wrapped in a heading
  • aria-controls set to the ID of the corresponding accordion panel content
  • aria-expanded set to true if corresponding panel content is visible
  • aria-disabled set to true if the collapsing accordion is not permitted

(Optional) Each panel content has role region and aria-labelledby to the corresponding header button

  • Avoid using the region role in circumstances that create too many landmark region

Accordions Code Example

        Accordion 1
    Content Placeholder

Here is a good example and its code.


You can see Tabs’ full documentation on W3C.

Tabs Design Considerations

Tabs are a set of layered sections of content, known as tab panels, that display one panel of content at a time.

Tab List: A set of tab elements contained in a tablist element

Tab: An element in the tab list that serves as a label for one of the tab panels and can be activated to display that panel

Tab panel: The element that contains the content associated with a tab

It is recommended that tabs activate automatically when they receive focus as long as their associated tab panels are displayed without noticeable latency.

Tabs Keyboard Interaction

TabPlaces focus on the active tab element when user moves into the tab list
Left Arrow (Horizontal tabs)

Up Arrow (Vertical tabs) | Moves focus to the previous tab; looping to the last tabOptionally, activates the newly focused tab | | Right Arrow (Horizontal tabs) Down Arrow (Vertical tabs) | Moves focus to the next tab; looping to the first tabOptionally, activates the newly focused tab | | Space or Enter | Activates the tab if it was not activated automatically on focus | | Shift + F10 | When focus is on a tab that has an associated popup menu, opens the menu |

Tabs Optional Keyboard Interaction

Home (optional)Moves focus to the first tabOptionally, activates the newly focused tab
End(optional)Moves focus to the last tabOptionally, activates the newly focused tab
Delete(optional)If deletion is allowed, deletes (closes) the current tab element and its associated tab panel, sets focus on the tab following the tab that was closed, and optionally activates the newly focused tab

Tabs Technical Considerations

Role of Tablist: Element containing a set of tabs must have aria-labelledby or aria-label.

Role of Tab: The element that serves as a tab must have aria-controls paired to the associated tabpanel, the active tab should have the state aria-selected set to true; all other tabs are set to false.

And it should have the property aria-haspopup set to either menu or true if a tab element has a pop-up menu.

Role of Tabpanel: Element containing content panel for a tab should have aria-labelledby paired to associated tab, and set aria-orientation to vertical or horizontal (default).

Tabs Code Example

<div role="tablist" aria-label="Tabs Example">
  >Tab 1 </button>

  >Tab 2</button>
  <p>Content 1</p>

  <p>Content 2</p>

Here is a good example and its code.


ARIA Authoring Practices Guide

Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.1

You can find a complete Vue code example with different components here:

End of the fifth Talk

I hope you enjoyed this part and it can be as valuable to you as it was to me.

You can find the next Talk here.